In 2013, 89 percent of critically accessible hospitals had implemented all or part of the EPD. Critical access hospitals that had certain types of technical assistance and resources to support IT for health, were more likely to have IT capabilities for health and reported less likely significant challenges for the implementation and use of EPD, compared to other hospitals in the survey. It is important to ensure that the necessary resources and support are available to critically accessible hospitals, especially those operating independently, to help them apply health IT and to link electronically to the wider healthcare system. Through the African Health Initiative, the five PHIT associations have designed and tested new approaches to improve data systems and use their results as an engine for decision making and performance improvements in the health system. The design differences described in the PHIT associations reflect the different theories of change for each project, especially as to what information is needed, who will use the information to influence the change and how this change is expected to manifest. Ghana and Tanzania have simplified paper files with data on community services, and in Ghana a groundbreaking resource allocation tool in Tanzania is designed to support district managers in decision-making.
Non-clinical data refer to information that is not directly related to the treatment of patients, but which may still affect the way professionals use health centers and resources. For example, information about the geographical scope of an organization (from which moment people come?) can help administrators make decisions about whether or not to expand their ambulance services, whether it be opening satellite clinics or investing in outreach to peripheral parts of the community. These systems also make it easy for healthcare providers to obtain information about macro environments, such as community trends. In addition, health information systems give an idea of specific care providers or care organizations, for example commonly used treatments or interventions that are linked to the best results. Quickly putting health data in the right hands depends on health information systems, which integrate medical care transparently and intelligently with information technology. A health information system enables healthcare organizations to collect, store, manage, analyze and optimize patient treatment records and other important data.
Google Earth Engine offers solutions to the challenges of processing big data into useful information. In addition, application programming interfaces allow strangers to create and repeat programs to explore new applications for data and models, as seen in Berkeley’s eco-computer engine. Finally, joint card tools, such as Seasketch / MarineMap and the InVEST software package, enable participation within and between expert groups and stakeholders for the development, implementation and long-term impact of a project.
It is a platform, similar to the electronic health record, but what makes it different is that through these patients they have secure online access to their medical records, make doctor’s appointments, contact the doctor, check medical bills and process payments online. All they need is a smart device to take advantage of the maximum benefits of the feature. Instead of following the old process of planning an appointment with your doctor, they can easily log into your account on the patient’s portal, check the availability of their doctors and make an appointment based on your convenience and availability of the physician.
The article provides theoretical concepts to support standardization processes in complex systems, and propose an approach to implement health standards in developing countries’ environments that are sensitive to the local context, enable change through small steps and provide a mechanism to scale information systems. They have been put into service quickly because of the recognition of their potential benefits and government programs that encourage their use. The benefits of health information technology include the ability to store and retrieve data; the ability to communicate patient information quickly in a readable format; the safety of medicines improved through greater readability, may reduce the risk of medication errors; and the ease of patient information recovery. Finally, This research has consequences for government policy, indicating the need to develop a national electronic health and health policy, that it should support and be aligned with the implementation of large-scale health IT to improve the expected benefits and minimize the barriers inherent in this type of initiative.
In the case of England, for example, previous investigations (Robertson et al., 2010, Morrison et al., 2011) indicated that one of the causes of the failure of the national IT program is the top-down approach, which caused process delays and user frustrations. In the case of the United States, the bottom-up approach could not stimulate the acceptance of technology by major suppliers (Wilson and Khansa, 2018). The failures resulting from the approaches used seem to have affected the future directions of some countries. For example, England and the United States have made greater efforts to implement an intermediate approach (Fragidis & Chatzoglou, 2018, Price, Green & Suhomlinova, 2018). With regard to the articles mentioned in the references of the bibliographic portfolio, 128 articles were analyzed with the alignment of titles.
The proposed workflow activities address the changing challenges of sharing patient data between healthcare providers, organizations, healthcare providers and patients. These challenges are partly a technical problem for health, medical and patient systems, but also pose significant risks to patient safety and compromise high-quality coordinated care and efficient service. Aim hospitals struggle remarkably to maintain hundreds of IT systems and applications in accordance with the latest IT standards and regulations.
Trisha Greenhalgh, known for two articles in her portfolio and six in the references, is a physician and professor of primary health sciences at Oxford University. He is committed to research related to the integration between the social sciences and medicine, with an emphasis on health organizations. He is a professor of global health and director of the Harvard Global Health Institute, affiliated with the Harvard School of Public Health and active in health policy.
Despite its many advantages, some barriers hinder its successful implementation and approval, which need to be addressed. This assessment document is necessary to highlight the obstacles that have led to technical problems that YOUR implementation in hospitals faces, to propose possible solutions that will improve services in the health sector based on the findings. The research identified a portfolio of 33 articles tailored to the research theme and scientific recognition, as well as journals, authors, documents and keywords that were most noticeable. Of the government initiatives in the 24 identified countries, England has been the most studied nation and there is some interest in research from developed countries. The efficiency and safety of health care provision, information integration and between health organizations, cost savings and the economy are the most anticipated benefits of government programs. The difficulties encountered are related to the broader context in which the system is inserted, the management of the program, the technology itself and the people.
The most studied national health IT implementation programs are those of the United Kingdom as they represent 22 items in the portfolio. In this context, the UK initiative to implement a national EPD system linked to the National IT Program (National Information Technology Program – NpfIT) is the most widely addressed research topic. Considered Nursing Homework Assistance one of the most important initiatives ever documented, it involved a total of 168 hospitals and 73 health care institutions, equivalent to an investment of £ 12.7 billion (Robertson et al. 2010). However, such an initiative did not achieve the expected success and was discontinued in 2011 (Klecun, Zhou, Kankanhalli, Wee & Hibberd, 2019).
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